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Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association - American Psychological Association Staff
Call Number: Print Reference Collection: BF76.7 .P83 2010
ISBN: 9781433805592
Publication Date: 2009-07-15
In addition to providing guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, this manual offers an authoritative reference and citation system. It also covers the treatment of numbers, statistical and mathematical data, tables and figures.

Cover Art
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers - Joseph Gibaldi; Modern Language Association of America Staff
Call Number: Print Reference Collection: LB2369 .G53 2009
ISBN: 9781603290241
Publication Date: 2009-01-01
The MLA Handbookgives step-by-step advice on every aspect of writing research papers, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. The seventh edition is a comprehensive, up-to-date guide to research and writing in the online environment. It provides an authoritative update of MLA documentation style for use in student writing, including simplified guidelines for citing works published on the Web and new recommendations for citing several kinds of works, such as digital files and graphic narratives.

Cover Art
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing - Modern Language Association of America Staff (Created by)
Call Number: Print Reference Collection: PN147 .G444 2008
ISBN: 9780873522977
Publication Date: 2008-01-01
The third edition of the MLA Style Manual offers complete, up-to-date guidance on writing scholarly texts, documenting research sources, submitting manuscripts to publishers, and dealing with legal issues surrounding publication.

Cover Art
Doing Honest Work in College - Charles Lipson
Call Number: PN171.F56 L56 2004
ISBN: 0226484726
Publication Date: 2004-10-15
As college deans and faculty are well aware, cheating and plagiarism have become an epidemic. Some students deliberately download papers, while others break rules they simply don't understand. Unfortunately, there have been no reliable guides to aid students, faculty, and teaching assistants in navigating these challenging issues. Now, there's help. Charles Lipson, a distinguished scholar and teacher who has coached thousands of students in the basics of honest work, provides clear, accessible, and often humorous advice on all aspects of college studies, from papers and exams to study groups and labs.

In the first part of the book, Lipson outlines three core principles of academic honesty and explores how these principles inform all aspects of college work. He discusses plagiarism in detail, outlining an ingenious note-taking system and offering guidelines for quoting and paraphrasing. Careful attention is paid to online research, including the perils of "dragging and dropping" text without proper citation. These chapters include numerous tips, all highlighted for students, on how to work honestly and study effectively.

Note that this book was published in 2004. Consult the latest edition of your style guide when formatting citations.



Why create an annotated bibliography?


Library research begins with a topic on which you want to find books, articles, and authoritative web documents. By creating an annotated bibliography as you discover new sources, you can save time and enhance the quality of your scholarship.

  • Citations store details required for your formal bibliography and in-text references.
  • Annotations (summaries and reflections) store notes in your own words that you can use in your narrative.

Each source (book, article, web document) in your bibliography reveals author, title, and publication details that allow anyone seeing your work to locate the same books, articles and media that you found helpful.

Brief quotations and paraphrases are allowed in research papers to illustrate the points you are making. In notes for your bibliography, quote passages exactly and paraphrase carefully so that you retain the meaning of the original passage. Note the page numbers on which each quoted or paraphrased reference appears.

Many respected scholars have been embarrassed by charges of plagiarism due to sloppy note taking. Don't let this happen to you!

Plagiarism = using the ideas and phrases of others as if they were your own, without attribution-- that is, without citing the sources on which you based your paper or presentation.

Record complete citations and page numbers for any source you are quoting, paraphrasing, illustrating or using in any way for your research project.

How do I start?


Depending on details of your assignment, you can record citations in a formal style right away, or use a simple labeled format for your notes and convert to the appropriate style for your final draft. Most library databases have options to format citations in various styles.  You will need to normalize these to match the style expected by your professor. Citation styles change over time, so be sure you are using the most recent edition of the style sheet. 

At Averett we typically use the APA (American Psychological Association) and MLA (Modern Language Association) styles. Your professor will indicate which is appropriate for your class. Ask a librarian for the latest APA and MLA style manuals. For examples and basic help online, use Knight Cite or JMU's Cite Check, or click on your citation style in the left column of this page.

Book citations include:



edition, if available:


place of publication:

year of publication:

doi (1), if available:

If you are referencing a chapter and not the whole book, record the information above, plus:

chapter title:

chapter author:

chapter pagination:

doi (1), if available:

Note any specific pages in the book from which you are quoting or paraphrasing ideas.

Article citations include:

article author(s):

article title:

journal title:

date of publication:

volume and issue number:

pages on which the article is located:

doi (1), if available:

Tip: If you have a choice of HTML or PDF for online documents, choose PDF (Adobe Reader required). It will show the original pagination and accurately reproduce images and tables.

Most articles are available in subscription databases, such as Academic Search Complete and ABI/Inform. For these sources note the:

date on which you viewed the article:

name of the database through which you found the article.

(Your readers may not be able to link to article through the same URL you see, so URL is not required.)

To cite a document from an open web site, be sure to record both:

the URL:


the date you viewed the source:

(The date viewed will be important if online content subsequently changes or disappears.)

Read each source carefully, summarizing what you learned with your reflections on how it relates to your topic. You can then compare notes on different sources and use the citations to easily retrieve the items you read previously, or seek more information on the same topic or by the same author.

Good luck with your project! For assistance, contact the Reference Desk.

(1) What is a "doi?" The Digital Object Identifier is a standard number that can be applied to any physical or electronic publication.  The doi travels with the electronic description of the source (its "metadata") regardless of who owns the content and which databases cite it. The most efficient way to track the location of a publication over time is to resolve its doi on the DOI Handle System. Scholars don't need to understand how this works on a technical level, however we should include doi's in citations when they are available.


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